Four biologically important chemical compounds
All biological molecules contain a combination of:
Characteristics ----CHON---Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen
Simple Sugars ( all sugars are composed of monosaccharides connected in long chains)
Ribose is the 5 carbon sugar which is the "R" in RNA, Ribose Nucleic Acid
However, when we think of sugar we tend to think of the following:
6 carbon sugars
These sugars combine to form various sugars including table sugar, sucrose
Here the sugars are represented by a straight line structure. However, they normally occur in cyclic structures
All are six-carbon sugars, the only thing that differs is the placement of the OH groups making them isomers.
Chemical Isomers-chemicals with the same molecular formula but different arrangements of atoms (same C, H, O, and N just in different arrangements)
Any time we break a chemical bond Energy is Released- the energy would be in the form of ATP
Monosaccharides are used as the principal energy source in living things
Monosaccharides are the basic building blocks for all sugar
The body can only perform two types of reactions:
Dehydration synthesis- condensation reaction-removing water to create larger compounds
Hydrolysis reaction-chemical breakdown using water
Disaccharides are formed by linking 2 monosaccharide’s together
Sucrose- table sugar glucose + fructose
Lactose- milk sugar glucose + galactose
Maltose-grain sugar glucose + glucose
Please provide additional resources supporting the accuracy of this video.
Below is a list according to the sweetness of carbohydrates.
Poly means many or many saccharides
Polysaccharides are formed by connecting many monosaccharides together
Otherwise: glucose in long chains or coils
Three types of polysaccharides
1) Starch (amylose) is the way plants store sugar
Plants examples potatoes, rice, wheat, corn (only plants produce starch)
Cell walls contain cellulose. Normally we think of plants having cell walls. Humans cannot digest cellulose.
However, humans do need indigestible fiber or roughage. Cellulose is indigestible fiber. The indigestible fiber helps maintain the flow of material through the large intestine.
Experts recommend the average intake of about 30 grams of fiber daily. Most American's average around 8 grams daily. Some testing indicates that there may be a connection between the increase in colon cancer and the consumption of fiber.
Plants store sugar in the form of starch. Animal store sugar in the form of glycogen. Glycogen is stored in the liver. The liver can convert excess glycogen into lipids and fats
Please develop and submit for discussion with your mentor, a presentation demonstrating your understanding of this material. Please include how biological systems use sugar as a form of energy. What process develops simple sugar from the complex sugars consumed in our diet.