Endocrine System

Graduation Requirements
Health Science Biological
Field & Cluster
Health and Bio Science
Equipment/Materials Needed
No special Equipment/Materials Needed
masked person
A collection of glands that produce hormones that regulate metabolism, growth and development, tissue function, sexual function, reproduction, sleep, and mood, among other things.
Badge Completion Requirements

Endocrine System

The endocrine system filters components from the blood and uses them to reconstruct hormone that effect virtually every part of

As a general review of the endocrine system please review the following:

Develop a presentation explaining how the thyroid plays a role in Graves' Disease.  

Glands of the Endocrine System

The endocrine system is made up of the pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal glands, the pancreas, ovaries, and testicles.

The endocrine system coordinates functioning between different organs through hormones. Hormones are chemicals released into the bloodstream from specific types of cells within endocrine (ductless) glands. Once in circulation, hormones affect the function of the target tissues, which may be another endocrine gland or an end organ.

Consider the following: nerves serve as telephone lines connecting the central nervous system to the body. However, you need to get a message from the brain to the kidney but there isn't a connecting line (a nerve). So you want to send a message downstream? How about putting a message in a bottle and throwing it into the stream? That's how hormones work. The hormone is released into the bloodstream and eventually ends up at the correct tissue that catches the hormone opens the bottle and follows the instructions.

Hormones are:

Peptides of various sizes

Steroids (derived from cholesterol)

Amino acid derivatives

Hormones bind selectively to receptors located inside or on the surface of target cells. Receptors inside cells interact with hormones that regulate gene function (eg, corticosteroids, vitamin D, thyroid hormone). Receptors on the cell surface bind with hormones that regulate enzyme activity or affect ion channels (eg, growth hormone, thyrotropin-releasing hormone).

Please review the following:

Please provide 2 additional resources that support the accuracy of the above video. Rank the videos 1-3 (1-Best, 3-Worst). Please support your selection for the best.


Please prepare and submit for discussion with your mentor a presentation that demonstrates your understanding of the endocrine system.

Renin/Angiotensin cycle


Please forgive my spelling above. I know it's hard to believe but it should be spelled 


This cycle becomes very important for cardiac health. Blood volume will help determine blood pressure which places stress on the heart. Drugs ending with -pril are ACE inhibitors which results in water and salt leaving the system while maintaining the potassium.

Please review the following:

Please develop and submit a presentation explaining how the Renin/Angiotensin cycle regulates blood pressure. Include how two common medications affect the blood pressure by interfering with the Renin/Angiotensin cycle.  

Pancreas (insulin/glucagon)

The pancreas, gallbladder, and bile duct (biliary) systems work together to form an important part of the digestive system. The pancreas and liver produce juices which help in the process of digestion. The pancreas is about the same size and shape as a small banana and lies in the upper abdomen toward the back and near the spine. The gallbladder is a small organ that stores bile. It is attached to your digestive system by a system of hollow ducts called the biliary tree. The gallbladder creates a reservoir for bile that is actually made in the liver.


Please review the following material:

Insulin and Glucagon 


Clusters of cells in the pancreas called islets produce the hormone and determine the amount based on blood glucose levels in the body. The higher the level of glucose, the more insulin goes into production to balance sugar levels in the blood. Insulin also assists in breaking down fats or proteins for energy.


The pancreas releases glucagon when the concentration of insulin (and indirectly glucose) in the bloodstream falls too low. Glucagon causes the liver to convert stored glycogen into glucose, which is released into the bloodstream. High blood glucose levels, on the other hand, stimulate the release of insulin.

Develop submit a presentation that explains how the release of insulin/glucagon regulates blood sugars. Please include normal values for blood sugar and disorders that are result of abnormalities in the blood sugar.

Glands of the Endocrine System

While many parts of the body make hormones, the major glands that make up the endocrine system are the:

  • hypothalamus.
  • pituitary.
  • thyroid.
  • parathyroids.
  • adrenals.
  • pineal body.
  • the ovaries.
  • the testes.


Hypothalamus and Pituitary Glands




Thyroid and Parathyroids

Adrenal Glands

Pineal Gland

Please develop and submit for discussion with your mentor a presentation that demonstrates your understanding of the glands of the endocrine system.