Skeletal System

Graduation Requirements
Biological
Field & Cluster
Health and Bio Science
Equipment/Materials Needed
No special equipment or materials are required
skeleton
Description
The framework of the body, consisting of bones and other connective tissues, which protects and supports the body tissues and internal organs.
Badge Completion Requirements

Anatomy of the Human Skeleton

Bones Responsibilities

     *Provide support and protection

     *Allow movement

     *Production of blood cells (hematopoiesis)

     *Store fat, iron, and calcium

     *Guide the growth of the entire body

 

Generally, the skeleton is divided into two separate sections:

Axial skeleton- 80 bones creating the body’s midline axis. These bones consist of the skull, ribs, sternum and vertebral column

Appendicular skeleton- 126 bones grouped into the upper and lower limbs and the pectoral girdle. These bones provide an anchor for muscles and allow for movement.

Bone Matrix is the non-living part of the bone, made of water, collagen, protein, and calcium.

Living bone cells-osteocytes found along the edges of the bone matrix. These cells play a vital part in the growth, development, and repair of bones

Inside the bones is the bone marrow. Red marrow is responsible for the generation of blood cells. (hematopoiesis)

At birth, you have 300 bones

As an adult, you’ll have 206 because of fusion

Five groups of bones:

     Long bones

     Short bones

     Flat bones

     Irregular bones

     Sesamoid bones

Research the types of bones and provide an example of each.

Common disorders of the skeleton

Bursitis

Osteoarthritis

Osteoporosis

Rheumatoid arthritis

Locate a picture of a skeleton:

skeleton

Be prepared to locate the following bones:

Cranium

Facial bones              Mandible              Clavicle

Scapula                      Humerus               Ribs

Radius                       Ulna                       Carpals

Meta carpals            Phalanges                 Femur

Patella                       Fibula                      Tibia

Tarsals                      Metatarsals              Phalanges

Calcaneus                Sacrum                    Pelvis

Illium                       Vertebral column      Sternum

 

 

 

 

 

 

Using the skeleton in the lab, develop and submit a presentation demonstrating your skill at naming and location of the bone listed above.

Bones of the Skull

The skull is comprised of 14 facial bones and 8 cranial bones for a total of 22 bones.

Some terms used to describe the skull

foramen- is a hole in the bone, allowing nerve and blood to enter the bone

fossa- is a depression in the bone, example cranial fossa

condyle- a raised smooth area were two bone articulate (articulate mean to move, normally a joint)

The way I remember the terms above: a foreman is an individual that in charge of a project. Their job is to make sure everyone else is on task and meeting the timeline. They tend to be pushy and bossy (that's their job). You might think that their a real ----(butt) hole. Foreman:hole---foramen=hole

Fossa sounds like a fossil- you know a bone that you dig up. Where do you find a fossil? In the ground. You have to dig for a fossil. You have to dig a ditch. A fossa is a ditch in the bone. A depression or ditch.

Condyle sounds like crocodile right? When the crocodile is just under the surface of the water what can you see? Two rounded projections stick above the water, his eyes. A condyle is a raised, smooth, rounded surface generally where to bones move to form a joint.

Please provide additional resources supporting the accuracy of the video. 

Please develop and submit for discussion with your mentor a presentation that demonstrate your understanding and location of the bones of the skull.  

Joints

The structure in the human or animal body at which two parts of the skeleton are fitted together.

Joints (articulations)

      -the location where bones meet

      -bone never make direct contact

 

Types of Joints

     Fibrous Connective Tissue

     Cartilaginous 

     Synovial 

 

Functional Classification

     Synarthrotic- no movement

     Amphiarthrotic- slight movement

     Diarthrotic- movement 

Fibroblast cells make up cartilage 

Types of Joints

       Suture- where skull joint between the bones no movement

       Syndesmosis- a membrane structure ex. radius and ulna the membrane between these two bones

     Gomphosis- the joint between the tooth and socket 

     socket/tooth connected with a periodontal ligament

Ligament- hold two bone together 

Bones are generally viewed through a process called x-rays. 

bone x-ray

Bone Alterations

hip replacment
hip bone

A broken is actually a break in the neck of the femur. The top of the femur is removed and a metal replacement is inserted into the leg and reattached to the pelvic bone. 

Arrange an interview with an individual that's had a hip replacement. Develop a list of questions including physical therapy required. length of recovery, how long they were in the hospital and how long did the surgery take. Record and submit the interview.