Periodic Table

Graduation Requirements
Science Laboratory Physical
Equipment/Materials Needed
No special equipment or materials are needed

Periodic Table
Prerequisites
Description
A chart of the chemical elements that display them in rows horizontally in order of increasing atomic number and vertically according to the similarity of the chemical properties of their atoms.

Badge Completion Requirements

Organization of Elements

Let's start with a review of an element. An element is one of more than one hundred substances that cannot be chemically broken down into simpler substances and are primary constituents of matter. Each element is distinguished by its atomic number, i.e. the number of protons in the nuclei of its atoms.

Example 

carbon

Carbon appears as the sixth element on the periodic table. The number six in the left-hand corner is the number of protons that each carbon atom will have. 

Using the periodic table, find number 17.........17 is Chlorine.....how many protons does each atom of chlorine have? You guessed it 17.

The elements are arranged on the periodic table by the number of protons in the nucleus. 

This arrangement was adopted in the late 1800s and developed by a Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev.

table

Columns in the periodic table are called groups or families. Pictured are 18 groups 

Rows are referred to as periods or energy levels. Pictured are 7 energy levels

 

Prompts

Please provide the period or energy level and the family or group number for each of the following:

Lead

Gold

Phosphorus

Carbon

Calcium

Please provide the name and symbol of each of the following:

Energy Level 3------group number 16

Energy Level 2------group number 6

Energy Level 5------group number 12

Energy Level 4------group number 18

Energy Level 3------group number 2

Please develop and submit a presentation demonstration your understanding of how the periodic table is arranged. Please include the prompts as part of your demonstration.  

Valence electron

A valence electron is an outer shell electron that is associated with an atom, and that can participate in the formation of a chemical bond. 

Octet Rule

The octet rule refers to the tendency of atoms to prefer to have eight electrons in the valence shell (an example is Argon). When atoms have fewer than eight electrons, they tend to react and form more stable compounds. 

Only electrons in the outer most shell are involved in a chemical reaction.

 

 

 

Please review the following material:

When drawing the "Lewis Dot Structures" please remember the order is: top, bottom, left, and right first time around. The following dots will be placed in clockwise order.

Prompt

Please include the following in your presentation

The number of valence electrons:

Oxygen 

Chlorine

Lead

Sodium

Iodine

 

Please develop a presentation that demonstrates your understanding of the periodic table and valence electrons. Please include the prompt suggestion in your demonstration.

 

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Metals, Non-Metals, and Metalloids

metal/nonmetal table

In the table above metals are represented by the blue, non-metals green and the pink metalloids.

 

 

 

 

Characteristics of Metals

  • Good electrical conductors and heat conductors.
  • Malleable - can be beaten into thin sheets.
  • Ductile - can be stretched into a wire.
  • Possess metallic luster.
  • Opaque as a thin sheet.
  • Solid at room temperature (except Hg).

Characteristics of Non-Metals

 

  • High ionization energies.
  • High electronegativities.
  • Poor thermal conductors.
  • Poor electrical conductors.
  • Brittle solids—not malleable or ductile.
  • Little or no metallic luster.
  • Gain electrons easily.
  • Dull, not metallic-shiny, although they may be colorful
  • Characteristics of Metalloids

 

Characteristics of Metalloids

     Metalloids usually look like metals but behave largely like nonmetals. Physically, they are shiny, brittle solids with intermediate to relatively good electrical conductivity and the electronic band structure of a semimetal or semiconductor.

Provide some reasons that copper wire is used to wire your house for electricity.

Explain how the role that gallium play in semiconductors

Who is Jack Kilby of Noble Prize in Physic fame? Hometown Great Bend, Kansas

 

Please develop and submit a presentation that demonstrates your understanding of metal, nonmetals, and metalloids. Please include a response to the prompts