Graduation Requirements
Physiology Science Biological
Equipment/Materials Needed
No special equipment or materials are required

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions for the development and function of living things. All known cellular life and some viruses contain DNA.

Badge Completion Requirements

DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid)

A self-replicating material which is present in nearly all living organisms. DNA is the main constituent of chromosomes. It is the carrier of information required for reproduction and protein construction.

The four bases of DNA are Guanine, Cytosine, Adenine, and Thymine. In the double helix of DNA, Guanine always binds with Cytosine and Adenine always binds with Thymine. 

base pairs

Shown above is the chemical structure of the four DNA bases. Notice that Cytosine is connected to Guanine and Thymine to Adenine. This is the only way that the base pairs can connect in the formation of DNA. 

base pair chart

Please review the material:


Identify the four base pairs

Explain the DNA structure

Discuss how DNA replicates

How many base pairs are there in a human genome 

Amino Acids form proteins, discuss the role of DNA in the production of proteins

Please develop and submit a presentation that demonstrates your understanding of DNA. Please address the prompts as part of your presentation. 

DNA Replication

 A complex process whereby the 'parent' strands of DNA in the double helix are separated, and each one is copied to produce a new (daughter) through the process of mitosis and cytokinesis.

DNA replication occurs during interphase before the cell enters the mitosis phase of the cell cycle. 

Ribose is the 5 carbon sugar that forms the backbone structure for DNA

Please review the following:

Once the enzymes have separated the DNA then DNA polymerase places nucleotides in the 3' to 5' directions. Eventually, a daughter strand of new DNA is added to the parent strand for an exact copy. 


Explain the function of each of the following enzymes: helicase, DNA polymerase, primase, and ligase

Discuss the 3' to 5' versus the 5' to 3' DNA fragment

Explain the anatomy of a nucleotide 

What does it mean to be anti-parallel ?

Explain semi-conservative replication

Please develop and submit a presentation that demonstrates your understanding of DNA replication. Please address each of the prompts in your presentation.